Ethics and political philosophy summaries:

A. John Simmons on tacit consent and political obligation

An argument against a basic right to democratic say

Counterexamples to ought implies can

A Theory of Justice by John Rawls and its critics

Bentham's argument for the principle of utility

Bernard Williams on the idea of equality

Derek Parfit’s mixed maxims objection to Kant

Duties to nations

Ethics of care

F.H. Bradley’s argument against the equality of human beings

F.H. Bradley's criticisms of utilitarianism

F.H. Bradley’s note on freedom

F.H. Bradley on responsibility, free will and determinism

F.H. Bradley on 'Why should I be moral?'

H.A. Prichard on promising

Hans Kelsen and the colony example

Hans Kelsen on the definition of democracy

Jacques Derrida on forgiveness

Joseph Raz's argument against strict consequentialism

Joseph Raz’s criticisms of Simmons’ definition of consent

Joseph Raz on number problems in morality

Joseph Raz on euthanasia and a life not worth living

Joseph Raz on promises

Little known objections to utilitarianism

Objections to John Rawls’s difference principle

Philippa Foot on morality as a system of categorical imperatives

Robert Nozick’s argument that taxation is on a par with forced labour

Robert Nozick’s objections to Rawls

Rousseau against the right of the strongest

Rousseau against slavery contracts

Rousseau on property recognition in the state of nature

Susan Okin on the gender system, the monogamous family and A Theory of Justice

The claim that morality is subjective

The miners paradox

The paradox of self-ownership

The theory of self-interest in Notes from Underground

Two fair-play theories of political obligation (George Klosko)

Well-known objections to utilitarianism


Other philosophy summaries:

A counterexample to Moore paradox assertions

An inconsistency in Quine

A priori knowledge of contingent propositions

Circularity in the definition of falsehood

Concepts, conceptions and disagreement

Donald Davidson on translation and alternative conceptual schemes

F.H. Bradley on responsibility, free will and determinism

Galileo’s logical objection to heavier objects falling faster

Gettier cases and adept knowledge

Gettier cases and logic

Locke on language and Derrida’s paradox of communication

Jacques Derrida’s argument against what can be heard is only sound

On an argument for the impossibility of miracles

Radical interpretation and alternative conceptual schemes (Donald Davidson)

Scheme-content dualism, coherentism and John McDowell's third position

The ontology of reasons

The theory of self-interest in Notes from Underground

The view that introspectible mental states determine meaning

There is at most one world

Thomas Nagel's view that Davidson is an idealist

Wittgenstein on 'I may be dreaming'


Linguistics summary:

It is raining somewhere


History summary:

R.G. Collingwood on the Ancient Greek worldview


Anthropology summaries:

Claude Levi-Strauss, social constructivism and syllables across languages

Marilyn Strathern on the facts of English kinship

Marilyn Strathern on the concept of society is theoretically obsolete

Origins of anthropology: arguments for and against fieldwork


Economics summary:

Transitivity of preferences and well-known counterexamples


Essay writing:

Four common essay writing errors

Ten common referencing and bibliography errors


Computer games:

Lario’s Space Garden

Rock, Paper, Scissors


Philosophy definitions and summaries from others:

Autonomy as self-authorship, a brief history (by Ben Colburn)

C.D. Broad on Christian propositions about Jesus

C.D. Broad on having a conscience

C.D. Broad on the ordinary understanding of material objects

C.D. Broad on the various meanings of the term ‘unconscious’

Definitions from analytic philosophy (various)

F.H. Bradley’s regress (by Graham Stevens)

Four shared commitments of Rudolph Carnap, W.V. Quine and Hilary Putnam (G. Ebbs and S. Verhaegh)

Frege’s puzzle (by Mark Kalderon)

G.E. Moore’s open question argument (by Mark Kalderon)

Joseph Raz on autonomy (by Jonathan Quong)

Locke’s theses about language (by Michael Morris)

Mill’s argument for utility (by David Brink)

Mixed raced relationships in the UK, an annotated bibliography by Alex Jones

Peter Marton’s notes on Plato’s Crito

R.G Collingwood on the Ionian science of nature

Sidgwick’s dualism of practical reason (Derek Parfit)

The foundationalist argument for intuitionism (R. Crisp)


Poems from others:

All Day I Hear the Noise of the Waters, by James Joyce

Annabel Lee, by Edgar Allan Poe

Arabia, by Walter de la Mare

A Song, by Elizabeth Tollet

“Broad Gold, The Evening,” by Anna Akhmatova

Catch of the day, by Finuala Dowling



I am not seaworthy, by Toni Morrison

I’d Love to be a Fairy’s Child, by Robert Graves

Lady Russell’s poem about metaphysics

Laura Riding anthology

Musée des Beaux Arts, by W.H. Auden

Remember, by Christina Rossetti

She Weeps over Rahoon, by James Joyce

Silver, by Walter de la Mare

Stallion, by Claude Colleer Abbott

Strings in the Earth and Air, by James Joyce

To a Skeleton, by Anna Jane Vardhill?

To my Subliminal Self, by Thomas Thornely

The Bee’s Song, by Walter de la Mare

The Cruel Moon, by Robert Graves

The Horses, by Edwin Muir

The Mermaid, by Stephen Southwold

The Loveless Sea, by Thomas Thornely

Translation of a Sappho Fragment


Stories from others:

A Crossbreed, by Kafka

Charlemagne and the ring, as retold by Italo Calvino

Cleobis and Biton, as retold by Robert Graves

Gottwald and Clementis, fragment from Milan Kundera

Laura Riding anthology

Poseidon, by Kafka

The Knock at the Manor Gate, by Kafka

The lazy science, as retold by Italo Calvino

The onion parable, as retold by Dostoevsky

The sea slug myth of the Tikopia

The Kind-hearted She-elephant, by George T. Lanigan

The vulture, by Kafka

The story of headless Hugh, as retold by Sir James Frazer

The third night, by Natsume Soseki


Stories from modernist journals (under construction):

A Tale from the Grave, by Ira V. Morris

The Later Life of Theseus, King of Athens, by Mary Butts


Literary pastiches and parodies (poems and stories):

A Christmas Garland, by Max Beerbohm

A Song, imitating Shakespeare’s A Midsummer Night’s Dream

On a carpet of leaves illuminated by the moon, by Italo Calvino

Mrs. Cannibalee

The Samovar, by John Cournos

Wyndham Lewis’s Imitation of Shakespeare


Other material from others:

Gertrude Stein explaining why she said, “A rose is a rose is a rose.”


Marie Bonaparte/Gaston Bachelard on Edgar Allan Poe

“This is the way we tie our shoes,” by Jerry Fodor

W.B. Yeats, by Wyndham Lewis